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 Surveying

Surveying


ERROR in measurements and their propagation :-

Errors types :

Gross errors are, in fact, not errors at all, but results of mistakes that are due to the carelessness of the observer. The gross errors must be detected and eliminated from the survey measurements before such measurements can be used.

Systematic errors follow some pattern and can be expressed by functional relationships based on some deterministic system. Like the gross errors, the systematic errors must also be removed from the measurements by applying necessary corrections.

After all mistakes and systematic errors have been detected and removed from the measurements, there will still remain some errors in the measurements, called the random errors or accidental errors. The random errors are treated using probability models. Theory of errors deals only with such type of observational errors.
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