# Theoretical Aerodynamics

**This book has been developed to serve as a text for theoretical aerodynamics at the introductory level for both undergraduate courses and for an advanced course at graduate level. The basic aim of this book is to provide a complete text covering both the basic and applied aspects of aerodynamic theory for students,**

**engineers, and applied physicists. The philosophy followed in this book is that the subject of aerodynamic theory is covered by combining the theoretical analysis, physical features and application aspects.**

**The fundamentals of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics are covered as it is treated at the undergraduate level. The essence of fluid mechanics, conformal transformation and vortex theory, being the basics for the subject of theoretical aerodynamics, are given in separate chapters. A considerable number of solved examples are given in these chapters to fix the concepts introduced and a large number of exercise problems along with answers are listed at the end of these chapters to test the understanding of the material**

**studied.**

**To make readers comfortable with the basic features of aircraft geometry and its flight, vital parts of aircraft and the preliminary aspects of its flight are discussed in the first and final chapters. The entire spectrum of theoretical aerodynamics is presented in this book, with necessary explanations on every aspect. The material covered in this book is so designed that any beginner can follow it comfortably. The topics covered are broad based, starting from the basic principles and progressing towards the physics of the flow which governs the flow process. The book is organized in a logical manner and the topics are discussed in a systematic way. First, the**

**basic aspects of the fluid flow and vortices are reviewed in order to establish a firm basis for the subject of erodynamic theory.**

**Following this, conformal transformation of flows is introduced with the elementary**

**aspects and then gradually proceeding to the vital aspects and application of Joukowski transformation which transforms a circle in the physical plane to lift generating profiles such as symmetrical aerofoil, circular arc and cambered aerofoil in the tranformed plane. Following the transformation, vortex generation and its effect on lift and drag are discussed in depth. The chapter on thin aerofoil theory discusses the performance of aerofoils, highlighting the application and limitations of the thin aerofoils.**

**The chapter**

**on panel methods presents the source and vortex panel techniques meant for solving the flow around nonlifting and lifting bodies, respectively.**

**The chapter on finite wing theory presents the performance of wings of finite aspect ratio, where the horseshoe vortex, made up of the bound vortex and tip vortices, plays a dominant role. The procedure for calculating the lift, drag and pitching moment for symmetrical and cambered profiles is discussed in detail. The consequence of the velocity induced by the vortex system is presented in detail, along with solved examples at appropriate places.**

**The chapter on compressible flows covers the basics and application aspects in detail for both subsonic and supersonic regimes of the flow. The similarity consideration covering the Parandtl-Glauert I and II rules and Gothert rule are presented in detail. The basic governing equation and its simplification**

**with small perturbation assumption is covered systematically. Shocks and expansion waves and their influence on the flow field are discussed in depth. Following this the shock-expansion theory and thin aerofoil theory and their application to calculate the lift and drag are presented.**

**In the final chapter, some basic flights are introduced briefly, covering the level flight, gliding and climbing modes of flight. A brief coverage of phugoid motion is also presented.**

**The selected references given at the end are, it is hoped, a useful guide for further study of the voluminous subject.**

**This book is the outgrowth of lectures presented over a number of years, both at undergraduate and graduate level. The student, or reader, is assumed to have a background in the basic courses of fluid mechanics. Advanced undergraduate students should be able to handle the subject material comfortably.**

**THEORETICAL details have been included so that the text can be used for self study. Thus, the book can be useful for scientists and engineers working in the field of aerodynamics in industries and research laboratories.**

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