The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to EC3

 The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to EC3

The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to EC3

Engineering structures are required to support loads and resist forces, and to transfer these loads and forces to the foundations of the structures. The loads and forces may arise from the masses of the structure, or from man’s use of the structures, or from the forces of nature. The uses of structures include the enclosure of space (buildings), the provision of access (bridges), the storage of materials (tanks and silos), transportation (vehicles), or the processing of materials (machines).

Structures may be made from a number of different materials, including steel, concrete, wood, aluminium, stone, plastic, etc., or from combinations of these.
Structures are usually three-dimensional in their extent, but sometimes they are essentially two-dimensional (plates and shells), or even one-dimensional (lines and cables). Solid steel structures invariably include comparatively high volumes of high-cost structural steel which are understressed and uneconomic, except in very small-scale components. Because of this, steel structures are usually formed from one-dimensional members (as in rectangular and triangulated frames), or from two-dimensional members (as in box girders), or from both (as in stressed skin industrial buildings).
Three-dimensional steel structures are often arranged so
that they act as if composed of a number of independent two-dimensional frames or one-dimensional members .

Structural steel members may be one-dimensional as for beams and columns (whose lengths are much greater than their transverse dimensions), or two-dimensional as for plates (whose lengths and widths are much greater than their thicknesses), as shown in Figure 1.2c. While one-dimensional steel members may be solid, they are usually thin-walled, in that their thicknesses are much less than
their other transverse dimensions.

Thin-walled steel members are rolled in a number of cross-sectional shapes [1] or are built up by connecting together a number of rolled sections or plates, as shown in Figure 1.2b. Structural members can be classified as tension or compression members, beams, beam-columns, torsion
members, or plates (Figure 1.3), according to the method by which they transmit the forces in the structure. The behaviour and design of these structural members are discussed in this book.

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