(A Text-book of Refinforced Concrete Structures)

LIMIT STATE DESIGN (A Text-book of Refinforced Concrete Structures)
Structural Engineering is that branch of engineering which deals with structural analysis and structural design. Structural analysis deals with the development of suitable arrangement of structural elements for the structures to support the external loads or the various critical combinations of loads which are likely to act on the structures.
The analysis also deals with the determination of internal forces in the various members (viz., axial forces, bending moments and shear forces), state of stresses or critical combination of stresses at the various points (which includes the nature, agnitude, and direction of these stresses) and the external reactions due to worst possible combination of the loads. The external reactions are transmitted to the foundation.
The methods of structural analysis and the principles involved in them remain independent of the materials used for all types of structures, whether the structures are built of plastics, timber, aluminium, steel or reinforced concrete.
Structural design deals with the selection of proper material, proper sizes, proportions and shape of each member and its connecting details. The selection is such that it is economical and safe. It satisfies all the stress requirements imposed by the most severe combination of loads to which the structure is required to transmit or resist including its self-weight. The structural design further deals with the preparation of final layout of the structure. The finished design drawings with all partinent or controlling dimensions for all the members, parts and connections are made. The finished design drawings are necessary for fabrication and construction.

The structural design is governed with the standard specifications. The hand-books are used as working tools in the structural design. When the reinforced cement concrete is used for the construction of the structures, the structural design is known as design of reinforced concrete structures. All the structural reinforced concrete components are designed as per IS: 1978, Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. The provisions of code are thoroughly followed, intelligently interpreted and carefully applied.
In reinforced concrete, reinforcing steel and concrete are used together with advantageous combination of their physical and mechanical properties. The steel and concrete deform together under the load due to the strong grip between them. The steel encased in dense concrete gets protection against corrosion and direct exposure to fire. The coefficients of linear thermal expansion and contraction of steel and concrete are practically equal. As such, the steel does not slip from the concrete and the initial stresses in two materials remain insignificant, even if,the ambient temperatures varies with ±100°C.


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