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Surveying with Construction Applications

 Surveying with Construction Applications

Surveying with Construction Applications



Surveying is the art and science of taking field measurements on or near the surface of the Earth. Survey field measurements include horizontal and slope distances, vertical distances, and horizontal and vertical angles. In addition to measuring distances and angles,surveyors can measure position as given by the northing, easting, and elevation of a survey station by using satellite-positioning and remote-sensing techniques. In addition to taking
measurements in the field, the surveyor can derive related distances and directions through geometric and trigonometric analysis.

Once a survey station has been located by angle and distance, or by positioning techniques, the surveyor then attaches to that survey station (in handwritten or electronic field notes) a suitable identifier or attribute that describes the nature of the survey station. In Chapter 8, you will see that attribute data for a survey station can be expanded from a simple descriptive label to include a wide variety of related information that can be tagged specifically to that survey station.

Since the 1980s, the term geomatics has come into popular usage to describe the computerization and digitization of data collection, data processing, data analysis, and data output. Geomatics includes traditional surveying as its cornerstone, but it also reflects the now-broadened scope of measurement science and information technology. Figure 8.1 shows a computerized surveying data model. This illustration gives you a sense of the diversity of the integrated scientific activities now covered by the term geomatics.


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