Slopes and Excavations

 Slopes and Excavations

Slopes and Excavations

Slopes as inclined earth surfaces occur everywhere. They are more or less worked by man and thus the condition is changed. Thus, the effects of these changes should also be considered and a certainty about the safety of the slopes should be obtained. Only with this knowledge should changes be carried out in order to be able to estimate their effect on people and the environment.

From my own experience, according to the practical necessity, the excavation pit shoring is also treated. The usual construction methods and their calculation proofs are shown. Artificial slopes for slope stabilization or also excavation pits are shown. Here the differences in the calculations are indicated, whereby basically simple and comprehensible calculation methods are assumed.

As a special feature, the spatial conditions of excavations are also examined, whereby this also concerns the spatial influences that lead to significant changes in relation to the shoring. This applies in particular to spatial slope protections and also shafts.

I would like to thank all clients and construction companies for the good cooperation that we have had on the most diverse Construction sites over all the years and also that we have been able to bring almost all problems to a reasonable solution together. It is important that all parties involved know what is happening and that they trust each other, without which we would not be able to build a structure to the satisfaction of our clients.

Furthermore, I would like to thank the publisher and his editor,Mr. Frieder Kumm, for the quick and trouble-free cooperation, without which the book would not have reached the reader so quickly.

A special need for me is to thank my dear wife Jutta, who always shows a lot of understanding for my activities and also suggest respects that I do not overwork me. All calculations were performed with LibreOffice-Calc.

LibreOffice is an open source program that is available free of charge on the Internet and is constantly being further developed. The calculations performed in Calc in this book can be requested from the author (ibw-calc(at) with a donation

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