Combustion Engine Diagnosis

 Combustion Engine Diagnosis

During the last decades internal combustion engines have developed to rather com
plex systems through an increasing number of components and variabilitie There-
fore, more actuators, sensors and many more electronic control functions were im-
plemented. This resulted together with constructive and thermodynamic designs in
a considerable improvement of performance and reduction of fuel consumption and
emissions. However, because of the increased complexity improved monitoring and
troubleshooting is a well-known challenge.
The increasing requirements on the coverage and precision of fault detection and
diagnosis for internal combustion engines and powertrains therefore need system-
atic procedures for the development. Compared to the classical on-board diagnosis
(OBD) for emission-related faults advanced methods with signal models and process
models allow a considerable expansion of the detection and localization performance
for engine component faults.
Advanced engine diagnostic methods support also the workshop-based diagnosis
(off-board) to find the root causes of faults more quickly and to reduce vehicle down-
time. It also opens remote access to be used by service stations and manufacturers.
Hence, these methods enable to improve the engines reliability, maintenance and
After an introduction to current developments for powertrains, on-board and off-
board diagnosis systems and some failure statistics the book gives in Part I a brief
survey on advanced supervision, fault detection and diagnosis methods. Part II first
describes structures for combustion engine control and diagnosis. Then, model-based
diagnosis methods for gasoline and diesel engines are treated for the main compo-
nents, like the intake system, fuel supply, fuel injection, combustion process, tur-
bocharger, exhaust system and exhaust gas aftertreatment. In general, series produc-
tion sensors are used.
The fault diagnosis of electrical DC, AC and PMSM motors, electrical, pneu-
matic and hydraulic actuators is compiled in Part III. Theoretical as well as experi-
mental results from test benches are shown and many experimental studies display
the applicability and the diagnosis quality for implemented faults. In the last part IV
on fault-tolerant systems, fault-tolerant sensors and actuators are considered.

The book is dedicated to graduate students of mechanical, electrical and mecha-
tronic engineering and computer science and is especially focused for automotive
engineers in practice.
The author is grateful to his research associates, who have performed many the-
oretical and experimental research projects on the subjects of this book, among them
S. Leonhardt, C. Ludwig, M. Willimowski, F. Kimmich, A. Schwarte, E. Hartman-
shenn, M. Leykauf, S. Clever, C. Eck, A. Sidorow and P. Kessler.
Without their continuous work on new methods and building up and maintaining
the combustion-engine test bench, measurement and computer equipment many re-
sults of this book would not have been obtained. Great appreciation goes also to our
precision mechanics workshop guided by A. Stark.
We also would like to thank the research organization Forschungsgemeinschaft
Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (FVV), within the Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller
Forschungsvereinigungen (AiF) who supported many projects. Several results were
obtained in cooperation projects with industrial companies. Among them are Adam
Opel AG, GM Europe, and Volkswagen AG. We appreciate these cooperations
strongly as they contributed positively to our own research.
Finally, I would like to thank Kerstin Keller, Moritz Neeb, Lisa Hesse and es-
pecially Brigitte Hoppe for the laborious and precise text setting, Sandra Schutz for ¨
drawing many figures and Springer Verlag for the excellent cooperation.

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